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Unit 14 (Grade 9) History and Civilization (Part II)

 Unit 14 History and Civilization

Reading II

Look at the pictures and answer the following questions.

a.                  What are these currencies?

b.                  What would happen if we didn't have money?

Answer:

a.      They are coins and note currencies of Nepali rupees and American dollar.

b.      If we didn’t have money, we cannot purchase anything.

The History of Money (page 178)

A. Find the words from the text above that have the following meanings.

a.                  r………          the period during which a king, queen, emperor, etc. rules

b.                  p………         to happen before something                                     

c.                  r………          to control something by means of rules     

d.                  c………         simply and without much skill or attention to detail

e.                  f………          to form a border around something                        

f.                   l………          something that somebody has done successfully

g.                  f………          an official order given by somebody in authority

h.                  s………         free to govern itself; completely independent 

i.                    i………          belonging naturally; essential

Answer:

a.          regime

b.         precede

c.          reign

d.         crudely

e.          fringe

f.           legacy

g.          form

h.         sovereign

i.            intrinsic

                               

B. Complete the table below with the correct information about the development of money.

 

Timeline

Events

1200 BCE

cowrie shells used as money

2000 BCE

 

6th century BCE

 

997–1022 CE

 

1821 CE

 

21st century

 

 

Answer:

Timeline                               Events

1200 BCE                              cowrie shells used as money

2000 BCE                              coins made of metal

6th century BCE                    currency made of leather and animals

997–1022 CE                        paper currency made of mulberry trees

1821 CE                                 the gold standard unit of currency

21st century                           digital payment and virtual currency

 

C. Answer the following questions.

a.      What did people use to make a trade before the invention of money?

b.      How were temples used as banks in the past?

c.      What was the benefit of using cowrie shells as money?

d.      Describe the coins invented by Turkey.

e.      Why did the leaders in international finance introduce the gold standard in currency?

f.       What form of money is being used in the 21st century?

Answer:

a.         Before the invention of money, the basis of early commerce was barter, a system of direct exchange of one product for another.

b.        Temples were used to store grain and other valuables used in trade as banks.

c.         The benefit of using cowrie shells as money was that they were similar in size, small, and durable.

d.        The coins invented by Turkey were made of electrum, a natural mixture of gold and silver, shaped like beans, these coins featured the royal symbol, a lion.

e.         The leaders in international finance introduced the gold standard in currency since the paper money (promissory note) comes with a number of problems.

f.          The 21st century has given rise to novel forms of money including digital payment and virtual currency such as bitcoin.

 

D. How might people trade in the next 20 years? What form of money might be used? Talk to your friends.

 

Grammar II (page 182)

A. Study the following sentences and notice simple past, past continuous and past perfect.

a.      While I was studying, Karen phoned me three times.

b.      They were playing football when the storm started.

c.      While she was working in India, she began to learn Hindi.

d.      I had finished the shopping when I met Manoj.

e.      When we got to the party, most people had already left. 

f.       It was the best movie I'd ever seen.

g.      He had already read the book so I gave it to his sister.

h.      She had known him since they were children.

i.        In 2005, I was living in Biratnagar.

j.        She called me yesterday.

Answer:

a. past continuous and simple past

b. past continuous and simple past

c. past continuous and simple past

d. past perfect and simple past

e. simple past and past perfect

f. simple past and past perfect

g. past perfect and simple past

h. past perfect and simple past

i. past continuous

j. simple past

 

B. Use simple past, past continuous or past perfect forms of the verbs in the brackets to complete the following sentences.

a.           Mr. Singh ………. (wait) for me when I reached the station.

b.          A: What …………… (do) this time yesterday?

       B: I was reading a novel.

c.           A: ………….. (go) out last night?

      B: No, I was too busy to go out.

d.          A: Was Sapana at the party?                         

e.          B: Yes, she ………. (dance) with Ravi.

f.            A: What ………. (do) when the earthquake occurred?

      B: I was cooking meal.

g.          He …........ (fall) off the wall when Sanam pushed him.

h.          I ………. (be) really in a difficult situation when I lost the job. 

i.            When I was young, I ………….. (want) to become a doctor.

j.            I ……………. (do) my homework when the telephone rang.

k.          When I last saw Kiran, he ………… (work) in his garden.

 

Answer:

a. was waiting

b. were you doing

c. Did you go

d. danced

e. were you doing

f. fell

g. was

h. wanted

i. was doing

j. was working

 

B. Find the mistakes in the story below and correct the verb forms throughout.

This happens to me when I was in India. I used to go to my office by train. On this particular evening, I hurry to my station but when I reached there, the train has already gone. I bought a newspaper and packet of biscuits and sit on the bench. While I am reading, a man came and sits down opposite me. There was nothing special about him, except that he is very tall. I was still reading when my eyes catch a very strange sight. The man reached over the table, open my packet of biscuits, took one, dip it into his coffee and popped it into his mouth. I couldn't believe my eyes. But I didn't want to make a fuss, so I ignored it. I just take a biscuit myself and went back to the newspaper. While I was pretended to be very interested in the news, the man took a second biscuit. After a couple of minutes I casually put a biscuit in my mouth and decide to leave. I was ready to go when the man stood up and hurriedly leave. I folded my newspaper and stand up. And there on the table, where my newspaper had been was my packet of biscuits. 

 

Answer:

This happened to me when I was in India. I used to go to my office by train. On this particular evening, I hurried to my station but when I reached there, the train had already gone. I bought a newspaper and packet of biscuits and sat on the bench. While I was reading, a man came and sat down opposite me. There was nothing special about him, except that he was very tall. I was still reading when my eyes caught a very strange sight. The man reached over the table, opened my packet of biscuits, took one, dipped it into his coffee and popped it into his mouth. I couldn't believe my eyes. But I didn't want to make a fuss, so I ignored it. I just took a biscuit myself and went back to the newspaper. While I was pretended to be very interested in the news, the man took a second biscuit. After a couple of minutes I casually put a biscuit in my mouth and decided to leave. I was ready to go when the man stood up and hurriedly left. I folded my newspaper and stood up. And there on the table, where my newspaper had been was my packet of biscuits. 

 

Writing II (page 184)

Do students need to learn history? Why? Write an essay on ‘The Importance of History’.

Answer:

The Importance of History

We People live in the present. We plan for the future and worry about it. On the other hand, history is the study of the past. Everything that has been done is "history," and because historical periods like colonialism, industrialization, and so forth shaped modern civilization, history has a direct impact on us every day.

History is an immutable component that can be consulted for knowledge and insight into how the world came to be at the position it is today and how it will continue to grow in the future. It spans all cultures, eras, seasons, and locations. The functions of history can appear harder to define than those of engineering or medicine in a culture that quite rightly wants education to serve beneficial goals. The results of historical study are less immediate and sometimes less tangible than those that come from some other disciplines, yet they are nevertheless very important and even essential.

History has already been justified for reasons that we no longer accept. No matter how it is studied, history is an essential part of our understanding of the world. It helps us to make sense of the present, and to prepare for the future. It enables us to see the interconnectedness of events, and to understand cause and effect. It helps us to appreciate the achievements of past cultures, and to learn from their mistakes.

Additionally, history gives a sense of continuity and identity. It aids in our understanding of our origins and identity. It helps us understand our own values and ideas as well as the diversity of the civilizations throughout the world. Most importantly, history offers a base upon which later generations can develop. Future generations will inherit it from us, and it is something we all have in common.

We can gain a lot of knowledge from history. We can discover the past's influence on the present. We can discover more about various cultures and their historical interactions. We can discover more about economics and the historical development of other societies. We can discover more about the natural world and its historical impact on humanity. In summary, history is a wealth of knowledge that can teach us about the world we live in.

Therefore, history is an essential part of our lives. It provides us with a sense of identity and continuity, and helps us to understand the world around us. It is an important tool for learning and preparing for the future, and it is something that we all share in common.

 

For previous exercises CLICK HERE.

For Contents CLICK HERE.

For unit thirteen CLICK HERE.

For unit fifteen CLICKHERE.

Other notes

For class 6 CLICK HERE.

For unit 7 CLICK HERE.

For class 11 CLICK HERE.

For class 12 CLICK HERE.

 


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